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来源:网络整理 作者:中国新闻视线网小编 发布时间:2020-10-16 01:35

从军事角度看,300名斯巴达人是如何阻止波斯人的?


从军事角度看,300名斯巴达人是如何阻止波斯人的?


The three hundred men in Spartan contingent is only a number of heavy full citizen infantrymen later known as hoplites. These were the upper class warriors every city state had, from (at that date) few dozen (Mycenae), hundreds (Tegea, Mantinea, Corinth) to thousands (Sparta, Athens). They are sometimes, for better understanding, compared to medi knights despite all the differences between eras. Most would have a (slave) attendant, or seven (9.10) some of which would fight as light infantry, mingling between, charging, fighting, and dying alongside heavy infantrymen. There were other lower class warriors fighting alongside heavy infantry elite as well. While the available numbers aren’t always reliable nor do they add up perfectly, it is accepted that the number of these lower class warriors at Thermopylae (from Spartan contingent) was three times the number of upper class Spartan infantrymen. When describing the “viewing of the dead” after the Greeks’ last stand, Herodotus implies dead Thespians (originally 700 men) and Spartans (300 men) and the lower class warriors including Spartan slaves amounted to 4000 bodies (8.25).

斯巴达特遣队中的三百人只是后来那些被称为“霍普利特”的重装公民步兵。这些是每个城邦的上层阶级组成的战士,从(当时)几十个(迈锡尼),到数百个(特盖亚、曼蒂尼亚、科林斯)到数千个(斯巴达、雅典)。
为了更好地理解,你可以拿来与中世纪的骑士相比,尽管时代之间存在着很大的差异。大多数人会有一个(奴隶)随从,或者七个,其中一些人会像轻步兵一样战斗,混合在一起,和重型步兵一起冲锋,战斗,死亡。还有其他下层战士与重型精英步兵并肩作战。虽然现有的数字并不总是可靠的,也不能进行完美的相加,但人们认为,在塞莫皮莱(来自斯巴达特遣队)的这些下层战士的数量是上层斯巴达步兵的三倍。在描述幸存的希腊人查看死伤情况时,希罗多德暗示死去的包括特斯匹伊人(最初是700人)和斯巴达人(300人),以及斯巴达奴隶在内的下层战士一共达4000具尸体。


从军事角度看,300名斯巴达人是如何阻止波斯人的?


从军事角度看,300名斯巴达人是如何阻止波斯人的?


There is a dedication from one of these archers dated to Persian Wars reading:
“This bow, resting from tearful war, hangs here under the floor of Athene’s temple. Often mid the roar of battle, in the struggle of men, was it washed in the blood of Persian cavaliers.”
So the entire force of Greeks consisted of thousands of hoplites or heavy upper class infantrymen (more than 5000) and twice or three times the light troops. Persian troop numbers were certainly inflated, but it can safely be assumed that it reflects the real life fact they vastly outnumbered Greeks. So while an impressive feat in and of itself, it isn’t really 300 people holding off a vast enemy force.
How Greeks managed to hold them off for so long?
First the geography. The pass they were fighting in was narrow, surrounded by cliffs and the Malian gulf to the east. What it did is reduce the impact of superior numbers Persians initially had. Or as Herodotus puts it - “since they used shorter spears than the Hellenes and could not use their numbers fighting in a narrow space.” (7.211)

这些弓箭手中的一位后来献词描述波斯战争,内容是:
“这把弓箭,从可怕的战争中退役,悬挂在雅典娜神庙的檐下。在战场的轰鸣声中,在人类的斗争中,它曾用波斯骑士的血液来清洗自己。”
因此,希腊人的整个联军部队由成千上万的霍普利特或重型上层步兵(超过5000人)和两到三倍的轻型部队组成。波斯军队的数量当然是夸大的,但既然可以这么大胆地假设,这反映了他们远远超过希腊人的真实事实。因此,虽然这本身就是一个令人印象深刻的壮举,但并不是真正的300人阻挡了一支数量庞大的敌人部队。
那么希腊人是如何设法阻止了他们这么长时间呢?
首先是地理。他们正在战斗的通道很狭窄,被悬崖和东部的马里湾所包围。这起到的作用是减少了波斯人最初拥有的较多人数的影响。或者像希罗多德斯所说的那样-- ”因为他们使用的长矛比希腊人的短,而且不能使用他们的数量优势在狭窄的空间中作战”


从军事角度看,300名斯巴达人是如何阻止波斯人的?


Both Greek and Persian troops took turns fighting in the pass - “standing ordered by nation, each of them fighting in turn…” (7.212) although the Greeks seem to have been more inspired, unsurprisingly, and “…fought memorably”, and towards the end Greeks even “ displayed the greatest strength they had against the barbarians, fighting recklessly and desperately.” (7.223)
Greeks also had a defensive wall (Phocian wall) rebuilt in a particularly narrow place in a pass “In all the previous days they had sallied out into the narrow way and fought there, guarding the defensive wall. ” (7.223).
Not only was this wall important as a defensive measure but also provided Greeks with a very important cover, since their force remained unknown to the Persians until the very end “[the Persian spy] could, however, not see the whole camp, for it was impossible to see those posted inside the wall which they had rebuilt and were guarding” (7.208).

希腊和波斯军队轮流在通道上进行战斗--“为了国家,他们每个人依次战斗...” 虽然不出意料地希腊人似乎更有战斗欲,“...进行了刻骨铭心的战斗”,而到了最后,希腊人甚至“展示了他们对野蛮人的最后力量,不顾一切和拼命地战斗。” 希腊人还在一个特别狭窄的地方重建了一堵防御墙(波奇安墙)“在过去的所有日子里,他们一直被困在狭窄的道路上,在那里战斗,守卫着防御墙。”
这堵墙不仅作为防御措施很重要,而且还为希腊人提供了非常重要的掩护,因为波斯人直到最后一刻为止,他们都无法摸清希腊人真正的实力。“(波斯间谍)无法刺探那些守在在他们重建并守卫的墙内的营地。”